Last week at Infiltrate I presented some early-stage work on crash triage under the title “Automated Root Cause Identification for Crashing Executions“. The slides can be found here, and the presentation notes contain further details in draft form.
A better title for this work would probably have been “Statistical Crash Triage” or possibly something involving the term “predicate synthesis“, as really those things are at the core of what was presented. The main algorithm can be summarised fairly quickly as follows:
- Run the target application on all the good inputs and all the bad inputs. Record coverage information.
- Use the coverage information to predict what functions are likely relevant to the crash.
- Rewrite those functions to insert instrumentation which will record all computed values and other properties.
- Rerun the instrumented version of the target application on all the good and bad inputs.
- From the recorded state, and predicate templates, synthesise and evaluate predicates over the program’s variables.
- Apply a lightweight statistical analysis to the evaluations of these predicates to shake out those relevant to the crash from those that are not.
The actual details are in the slides so I won’t go into that any further. The advantages of this approach are that it isn’t tuned towards one bug type, or class of applications, and simply relies on large amounts of input data and lightweight analyses to discover ‘interesting’ things. Alongside that, the analyses at each stage are parallelisable and so it’s quite simple to scale up. On a reasonably sized target (PHP) the approach is fast enough to fit into a normal workflow.
The most significant downside is that the generality means that if a bug is best described by a very complicated/precise predicate it may not be discovered (although more simple predicates may be, which can help a user manually discover the precise predicate more easily). In terms of the work as a whole there is also a weakness in the limited evaluation so far, but this is something I’m currently in the process of alleviating. In particular I’m working on testing with a wider variety of memory management issues as those pose some unique challenges for the algorithm above.
Besides the analysis algorithm itself, I also want to quickly mention CrashCorpus*. This is a corpus I’m currently working on for the evaluation of crash triage (and related) tools. A significant issue with the academic literature is that the algorithms tend to be tested almost exclusively on toy programs or synthetic bugs. The goal of CrashCorpus is to eliminate that by providing easy to build, easy to run, real-world targets. I’ll have more info on this once I get closer to a public release.
* I’m still building towards a public release of the corpus as it needs more targets before it is truly useful, but if you’d like to contribute drop me an email (sean _at_ vertex.re). All I require is a set of crashing inputs, a set of non-crashing inputs and the source code for the target. I’ll take care of the rest.